BIOLOGY 1404 STUDY GUIDE

UNIT TWENTY-ONE


KINGDOM FUNGI (pp. 348-370)

Introduction (pp. 349-350)

1.  What is a distinctive characteristic of all fungi (different from any other kingdom)?

2.  What is the general appearance of a fungal colony?

     How does a fungal colony differ in appearance from a bacteria colony?

3.  How do fungi make a living? 

4.  What is the term for fungal threads? 

5.  What is the term for a web of fungal threads? 

Simple Fungi  - Rhizopus (pp. 351-353) 

1.  What is the common name of Rhizopus?

2.  The mycelium of Rhizopus is coenocytic.  What does that mean? (p. 350-351)

     What is the chromosome number of each nucleus in the mycelium?

     What process produced all of these nuclei?

3.  Review:  What are three basic characteristics of a spore? 

4.  With a simple drawing, describe a sporangium of Rhizopus. (See Figs.19.3 and 19.4)

     What is the etymology of the word "sporangium"?

     How many spores are in each sporangium?

     What process produced these spores?

     How do these spores function in reproduction?

     Is this sexual or asexual reproduction? Explain why.

5.  Does Rhizopus have sexual reproduction?

     Draw the appearance of  Rhizopus hyphae just before and after fertilization.  Label the gametangia and a zygote.

     Does the Rhizopus life cycle include mitosis of 2n cells?

     Does any fungal life cycle include mitosis of 2n cells?

     What happens to the Rhizopus zygote -- if it doesn't divide by mitosis?

Simple Fungi - Penicillium (pp. 365-368)

1.  Is the Penicillium mycelium coenocytic?

2.  What is the chromosome number of all nuclei of Penicillium?

3.  Draw a reproductive structure of Penicillium.

    How does this structure function in reproduction?

    Is this sexual or asexual reproduction?

4.  Does Penicillium have sexual reproduction?

The Basidiomycetes (Club Fungi) (pp. 357-363)

1.  What type of (sexual) reproductive structure is typically produced by the club fungi? 

2.  Draw and label the parts of a club fungus reproductive structure. 

3.  When you see a mushroom above ground, what fungal structures are below ground?

4.   What produces a "fairy ring"?  (See Fig. 19.20 )

5.  Using a labeled diagram, show the complete life cycle of a club fungus (as discussed in class).

6.  What phase of a club fungus life cycle is unique to Kingdom Fungi? 

7.  What is another name for the n + n phase? 

8.  What happens to each zygote in the club fungus life cycle? 

9.  How many spores are formed on each "club"? 

10. What will eventually happen to the spores on each club? 

11.  Basidiomycete reproductive structures (mushrooms, shelf fungi, etc.) that don't have gills have what instead? (See fig 19.21)

The Ascomycetes (Sac Fungi) (pp. 353-357)

1.  What is a common form of (sexual) reproductive structure of the sac fungi (equivalent to a mushroom)? 

2.  Using a series of labeled diagrams, describe the sexual life cycle of an Ascomycete (as discussed in class).

3.  What happens to each zygote in the sac fungus life cycle?

4.  Where are the sacs located on a cup-shaped reproductive structure?

     How many spores are in each sac?

     Where did they come from?  (How were they formed?)

5. What will eventually happen to the spores in the sacs? 

Yeast (p. 354)

1.  How do yeast cells reproduce asexually?

2.  Diagram the yeast sexual life cycle.

3.  To which division of fungi does yeast belong?

     Why?

Morels (pp. 354-356)

1.  Morels and what other fungi are considered the world's best tasting fungi? 

2.  To which division of fungi do these delicacies belong?

3.  Draw an outline picture of a morel. 

4. Where on a morel are the spore-producing structures located?

Lichens (pp. 368-370)

1.  In what way is a lichen an unusual "organism"?

2.   How much does a lichen resemble either "partner" by itself?

      Use a labeled diagram to show the general structure of a lichen. 

      Where is the lichen fungus the most dense?  The least dense? 

3.  What type of fungus is usually the "fungal partner"? 

4.  What are the two different kinds of "green partner"? 

      Where is the green partner located in the lichen "body"? 

5.  What benefit does the fungus (apparently) receive from the relationship?

     What benefit does the algae or cyanobacteria (apparently) receive from the relationship?

6.  How are lichens named?

7.  What type of fungal reproductive structure is commonly seen on lichens? 

    Why would this structure not be good means for the lichen to "reproduce"? 

8.  How do lichens usually "reproduce"?

Black stem rust of wheat (pp. 362-363)

1.  What host is required (besides wheat) for this rust to complete its life cycle?

2.  Approximately how many barberry plants were destroyed in the United States between 1918 and 1990.

     Why was this strategy not completely successful?

3.  Why has producing rust-resistant strains also not been completely successful?