COURSE:      HIST 1483—UNITED STATES HISTORY TO 1865

 

HOURS CREDIT:    3 Semester Hours

 

PROFESSOR:           Dr. Doug Baker

Office:             LRC 308

Office Hours:  To be Announced

Office Phone:  945-3235

E-Mail:            dr.baker@osuokc.edu

Home Page:     www.osuokc.edu/bdougla

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION: From European background through the Civil War.  Satisfies, with POLS 1113, State Regents requirement of six credit hours of U.S. History and American Government before graduation.  No credit for students with credit in HIST 1103.

 

TEXT:            Baker, Doug and Susan Hutchins.  The American Journey, Vol. 1.  Madison:  Rainmaker Education, 2010.  ISBN: 978-1-935801-00-9.

 

GENERAL EDUCATION GOALS:

 

Upon completion of General Education Curriculum, students should be proficient in demonstrating the following competencies:

 

Goal #1:  Critical Thinking

 

Explanation:

 

Critical thinking skills include, but are not limited to, the ability to comprehend complex ideas, data, and concepts; to make inferences based on careful observation; to make judgments based on specific and appropriate criteria; to solve problems using specific processes and techniques; to recognize relationships among the arts, culture, and society; to develop new ideas by synthesizing related and/or fragmented information; to apply knowledge and understanding to different contexts, situations, and/or specific endeavors; and to recognize the need to acquire new information.

 

*All courses will contain assignments that demonstrate critical thinking, but not all courses will include all listed critical thinking elements.

 

Goal #2:  Effective Communications

 

Explanation:

 

Effective communication is the ability to develop organized, coherent, unified written or oral presentations for various audiences and situations.

 

 

Goal #3:  Computer Proficiency

 

Explanation:

 

Computer proficiency includes a basic knowledge of operating systems, word processing, and Internet research capabilities.

 

Goal #4:  Civic Responsibility

 

Explanation:

 

Preparation for civic responsibility in the democratic society of the United States includes acquiring knowledge of the social, political, economic, and historical structures of the nation in order to function effectively as citizens in a country that is increasingly diverse and multicultural in its population and more global in its view and functions.

 

Goal #5:  Global Awareness

 

Explanation:

 

Global awareness includes knowledge of the geography, history, cultures, values, ecologies, languages, and present-day issues of different peoples and countries, as well as an understanding of the global economic, political, and technological forces which define the interconnectedness and shape the lives of the world’s citizens.

 

GLOBAL MISSION STATEMENT:

 

It is the mission of the Social Sciences Department at OSU-OKC to enhance student awareness and appreciation of the world’s political, economic, and cultural diversity as well as the necessity of thinking globally in all areas of scholarship as we strive to build a strong national identity.  The principles stemming from the social sciences apply to all phases and aspects of individual and group life in an increasingly global community.

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

 

The student who successfully completes the course should be able to:

 

1.         Explain the fundamental European and British roots which have influenced America's development.

 

2.         Identify and assess the basic political, economic, social, and religious institutions that shaped American society through the Civil War.

 

3.         Describe and assess the influence of the main ethnic, racial, and religious groups in early American history.

 

4.         Evaluate the complex roots of the Civil War and explain how those conflicting roots could not be reconciled peacefully.

 

5.         Evaluate the effectiveness of major early American foreign policies on the world scene and at home.

 

GENERAL INFORMATION:

 

1.         Prerequisites:  None

 

2.         Next Course in Sequence:  HIST 1493—U.S. History Since 1865; not required if taking HIST 1483 unless a student’s degree program requires two History courses.

 

            3.         Instruction Methods:  This is primarily a lecture class, although class discussions are also encouraged.

 

4.         Special Information:  Class participation is encouraged, but talking among yourselves during the lecture is not acceptable.  OSU-OKC policy prohibits the presence of food and drink in the classroom.  Also, please remember that all buildings on our campus are tobacco free.  Students who persistently disrupt a class or flagrantly violate OSU-OKC policy may be asked to leave the classroom.

 

5.         Attendance:  Students are held accountable for all work covered in a course despite valid reasons for absence from class.  Students are expected to attend each class period.  Regular attendance is necessary for a student to earn a good grade.  See #5 under “Course Requirements” for the details of the attendance policy in this class.

 

6.         Honors Credit:  A student who meets the following criteria may receive Honors credit by completing a Request for Honors Credit by Contract-Conditions form with the instructor’s permission and submitting it to the Program Coordinator.  The student must achieve a “B” or above and satisfactorily complete the contract to earn Honors designation for the course.  It is the Program Coordinator who must determine the eligibility of the student for the Honors Contract before the Contract is completed by the student and the instructor.

 

            Requirements for New Freshmen:  ACT composite score of 23 or higher, or a high school grade point average of 3.5 or higher.

 

            Requirements for Students Other than New Freshman:  (a) If a student other than a new freshman has completed fewer than 30 credit hours, he/she must have at least a 3.0 retention grade point average; (b) If a student other than a new freshman has completed 30 or more credit hours, he/she must have at least a 3.25 retention grade point average.       

           

            Special Cases:  Students who do not meet the eligibility requirements may petition the Honors Committee by first contacting the Program Coordinator for an exception to the minimum GPA requirement.  Consideration of the petition will be based upon performance during the prior semester at OSU-OKC.

 

7.         Academic Dishonesty or Misconduct:  Academic dishonesty or misconduct is not condoned nor tolerated at institutions within the Oklahoma State University system.  Academic dishonesty is behavior in which a deliberately fraudulent misrepresentation is employed in an attempt to gain undeserved intellectual credit, either for oneself or for another.  Academic misconduct is behavior that results in intellectual advantage obtained by violating a specific standard, but without deliberate intent or use of fraudulent means.  Academic dishonesty or misconduct cases are governed by the OSU-OKC Campus Student Rights and Responsibilities Code.  The Student Rights and Responsibilities document is only available online.  You can obtain it at http://www.osuokc.edu/rights.

 

8.         Withdrawal Policy:  Any student may withdraw from this class or change to audit on or before the published drop date, which is the Friday of the twelfth (12th) week of the semester (the sixth week of the summer semester).  Withdrawals must be processed through the Admissions Office and requires the signature of an advisor within the division.  All students remaining on the class roll after the published drop date will receive a letter grade in the course.

 

9.         Incomplete Grades:  The Incomplete grade (I) may be given only to a student who has completed at least 70% of the course work, is passing, and has a valid excuse for being unable to complete the course.  It is the student's responsibility to contact the instructor, who will complete an "I" contract, stipulating the work that must be made up and the time allowed to do so, for both of you to sign.

 

10.       Americans with Disabilities Act Statement:  If any member of the class feels that he/she has a disability and needs special accommodations of any nature whatsoever, the instructor will work with you and the Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs to provide reasonable accommodations to ensure that you have a fair opportunity to perform in this class after the disability has been verified.  Please advise the instructor of such disability and the desired accommodations at some point before, during, or after the first scheduled class period.

 

11.       Electronic Device Policy:  Cell phones and other electronic devices are disruptive to the class.  If a student’s work or family situation requires the student to keep the device turned on during class, the student must turn the phone to a silent or vibrate mode.  If a student must receive a call during class, the student will leave the room.  A student may not make a call during class.  Cell phones and all electronic devices may not be used during an exam unless stipulated by the instructor.  Use of a cell phone or electronic device during an exam is considered academic misconduct, and the student will be subject to the appropriate penalties.

 

12.       Unattended Children Policy:  For personal safety of children and potential problems in supervision, children should not be at any location on campus without adult supervision.  No children are permitted in classrooms, laboratories, teaching areas, or the Library.

 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS:

 

1.         Exams:  There will be a total of four (4) exams in this course, including the Final Exam.  Each exam will consist of matching, true or false, and multiple choice questions, although the Final Exam will also include a Timeline Matching question that covers the entire course.  Each of the first 3 Exams is worth a maximum of 100 points, and the Final Exam is worth a maximum of 120 points—making a total of 420 exam points. 

 

2.         Exam Schedule:  All Exams will be taken on the Desire to Learn (D2L) online class site.  The Exam Schedule is posted on the main page of the D2L online class site.  You will have 50 minutes to take an exam.  After the time period has expired, D2L will not allow you to answer any more questions or to change any answers.  So please pace yourself accordingly.  IF you have a reason that you need more time to take your exams, then you need to get certified by the ADA specialist on campus.

 

3.         Exam Make-Up Policy:  All exams must be taken online during the time periods listed on the main page of the D2L online class site.  If you fail to take a regular exam during its time period, you will have to take a Make-Up Exam that is 100% Essay in nature (and one which you will NOT want to take)!  The ONLY exceptions to this rule are as follows:

 

·         There is a D2L server problem, which means that it is the fault of OSU-OKC; OR

·         The student can provide official documentation of a hospital stay, a funeral attended, special medication that affected his/her ability to take an exam during the time period that an exam was available online, military orders, etc., unless there has been an obvious case of a natural or man-made disaster in the area or of widespread power outages.  There is NO Make-Up Exam for the Final Exam.  Failure to take the Final Exam on time will result in a “0” for that exam.

 

4.         Discussion Board Assignments:  There are 4 Discussion Board topics in this course.  For each one, follow the directions on the Discussion Board page.  For each topic, you need to post your own Main Entry.  Post your entry directly on the Discussion Board area (NO ATTACHMENTS).  Your Discussion Board entries will be graded according to the accuracy of the historical information and how thoughtful you were:  To get full credit, your Entry for each Topic must consist of at least 5 complete and coherent sentences that are historically accurate and meaningful—20 maximum points.

 

            With 4 Topics, there will be a maximum total potential of 80 points for the Discussion Board component of the course. 

 

5.         Attendance Policy and Participation Points: 

           

            Attendance in this class must be regarded as mandatory in the same way that going to your job is mandatory.  As with a job, there will be consequences for excessive absences because, in this case, you cannot get Participation Points when you’re absent.

 

            There will be 100 total possible Participation Points in the course.  Normally, that amounts to 3 1/3 points per class period (except for students who have Excused Absences).  At the end of the semester, I will simply calculate the percentage of class periods that a student received Participation Points out of the total number of class periods minus any days with Excused Absences, and put that percentage as a score over 100 points.  Therefore, the Participation Points category will be worth the same as a regular exam.  The rationale for this is that educators know that students who are faithfully attending class learn things that cannot be tested.

 

            Behaviors resulting in NO Participation Points (besides being absent) include, but are not limited to, (a) habitually arriving late to class; (b) habitually communicating with someone else in class; (c) reading, texting, cell phone usage, being on Facebook or other social network sites during class; (d) habitually going to & from the class during class (unless a medical condition is documented); (e) habitually putting away your class materials before the professor has dismissed the class; and (f) otherwise engaging in behavior that distracts other students and/or the professor during class.

 

            Only Absences for Extraordinary Circumstances will be Excused…these include, but are not limited to, jury duty, military duty, student’s own hospitalization, attendance at a funeral, etc.  Ordinary doctor’s visits, job schedule conflicts, etc. will not be excused under normal circumstances.  However, IF a student has a medical condition that will likely result in excessive absences, that student will receive Participation Points based on the class periods he or she is actually in class.  Documentation is required for these Extraordinary Circumstances.

 

             In the SUMMER Semester, Attendance is measured TWICE per class period, once before the Break and once after the Break.  Therefore, if a student misses an entire class period, that equals 2 Absences!

 

6.         Communication Expectations:

 

            You can e-mail me (dr.baker@osuokc.edu) or call and leave a voice mail (945-3235) at any time day or night.  However, I will not be up 24 hrs. per day to respond to your communication immediately.  But I do pledge that I will usually answer your e-mail within 24-36 hours after I receive it in my Inbox.  The exception to that general rule of thumb is that I do not respond to communication between sundown on Fridays and sundown on Saturdays.  Leaving a voice mail on a Thursday afternoon usually means that I will not return your call until some time the next Monday.

 

EVALUATION:

 

The grading scale for this course is as follows:

 

A = 90% - 100%

B = 80% -   89%

C = 70% -   79%

D = 60% -   69%

F =    0% -   59%

 

INSTITUTIONAL STATEMENT:

 

Each student is responsible for being aware of the information contained in the OSU-OKC Catalog, Student Handbook, and semester information listed in the Class Schedule. 

 

SYLLABUS MODIFICATION STATEMENT:

 

Faculty has the right to change or modify the course syllabus materials during the academic year.  Any changes will be provided in a written, dated addendum to the course syllabus.

 

 

KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL LEARNING

 

 

1.                  ATTENDANCE

 

2.                  ORGANIZATION

 

Between each time the class meets you should:

 

·         Type your lecture notes on a computer, reorganizing them by

 

(1)  making the headings & sub-headings stand out.

(2)  numbering or bulleting listed items.

(3)  highlighting key names and terms.

(4) leaving sufficient space between items and sections to avoid confusion in identifying information in your notes.

 

NOTE:  Make a back-up copy of your typed notes on the computer, and print the notes off each time, placing them in a 3-ring notebook.

 

·         Identify all items discussed in class on the appropriate Review Sheet, and follow the recommendations exactly for using the Review Sheet.  NOTE:  Remember to do any textbook items also—which requires that you keep up with class discussions and be aware of the chapter readings in the course syllabus.

 

·         At least skim read the appropriate textbook chapter for the next lecture—which also requires that you keep up with class discussions and be aware of the chapter readings in the course syllabus.

 

3.                  TIME

 

It is estimated that college students should spend 2-3 hours outside of actual class time for every hour spent in class.  NOTE:  This requires a careful evaluation of your personal schedule (e.g., family, work, school, etc.) and making any appropriate adjustments in order to have this much time.

 

 

 


COURSE OUTLINE

 

 

I.  FIRST EXAM—Chapters 2-5                              III.     THIRD EXAM—Chapters 9-12

 

Lecture Topics:                                                               Lecture Topics:

 

Columbus and Vespucci                                                   The Marshall Court

England's Settlement of the New World                          Louisiana Purchase and Aftermath

Early English Colonies                                                      The War of 1812

Early Indian Relations                                                      Rise of the Factory System

Colonial Life                                                                     The Era of Good Feelings

Origins and Early History of Slavery                               The 1824 Election and Aftermath

The Enlightenment                                                            The Jacksonian Era

British Colonial Policy Before 1763                                 The Rise of the Whig Party

                                                                                          Early 19th Century American Culture

                                                                                          The Age of Social Reform

The Millerite Movement

 

 

II.    SECOND EXAM—Chapters 6-9                    IV.      FINAL EXAM—Chapters 13-16

 

Lecture Topics:                                                            Lecture Topics:

 

British Colonial Policy After 1763                                Manifest Destiny

Early Crises with Britain                                                The Expansion of Slavery

The Tea Act and Aftermath                                           Southern Defense of Slavery

The American Revolution                                              The Anti-Slavery Movement

Effects of the Revolution on Slavery                            The Compromise of 1850

The First National Government                                     Other Crises

The Constitutional Convention                                      The 1860 Election and Aftermath

Religion and the Founding Fathers                               General War Strategies

The New Federal Government                                      The Civil War

Early Indian Relations After Independence                  Legacy of the Civil War

Early Politics                                                                 

 

                                                                                      

 

HOW TO STUDY FOR DR. BAKER'S HISTORY EXAMS

 

There are 4 Review Sheets, one for each exam, located in this course syllabus.  Please notice the 4 sections associated with each one:

 

1.         People (Textbook):  At least Ten (10) names of specific people are listed in this section on each Review Sheet.  The numbers in parenthesis represent the chapter in the textbook where you can find each person discussed.  These names will probably not be discussed in class, so it is imperative that you research them in the textbook.  You do not need to get detailed at all about these; just be able to identify who they were, or what they were associated with.  The use of regular size paper is recommended for your study preparation, with no more than 2 lines per item and with double-spacing between each item.  These names will appear on the Matching section of the appropriate exam.

 

2.         People and Places:  Fifteen (15) names of specific people or places are listed in this section on each Review Sheet.  These names will usually be discussed in class.  Please prepare this section in the same way recommended for the “People (Textbook)” section (see #1 above).  This section is tested in the True or False and Multiple Choice sections of the appropriate exam.

 

3.         Identifications:  Fifteen (15) identification items are listed in this section on each Review Sheet.  Note that these items include laws, court decisions, declarations, proclamations, treaties, book titles, scandals, wars, battles, strikes, elections, rebellions, movements, etc.  Please note that although most of them will be discussed in class, some of them will not.  For those not discussed in class, you will have to get the information for them from the textbook.  The use of lined (or ruled) 3" x 5" index cards is recommended.  Label each card with the specific title of the Identification you’re working on; then ask and answer as many of the five (5) journalistic questions—Who, What, When, Where, and Why—as you can.  NOTES:  (1)  The “Why” question refers to what is historically significant about the item (i.e., why it is important); and (2) remember that you are aiming only for the most important facts, so limit yourself to one (1) side of each index card.  This section is tested in the True or False and Multiple Choice sections of the appropriate exam.

 

4.                  Short Essay:  Seven (7) short essay questions are listed on each Review Sheet.  Please note that every question in this category will be discussed in class.  The use of 3" x 5" index cards is recommended.  Label each card with an appropriate title and the number of the Short Essay on the Review Sheet.  Then limit yourself to what was discussed in class—and only that portion which specifically answers the question on the Review Sheet—and outline (in contrast to writing a polished essay) your response to that Short Essay.  This section is tested primarily in the Multiple Choice section of the appropriate exam.  Although there are no essays to write on an exam, please prepare these Short Essays as if you did have to write them from memory; then you should be more than adequately prepared for the exam!

                                                                             


 

 

REVIEW SHEET #1

 

 

People (Textbook)                            People & Places                     Identifications

 

Ferdinand & Isabella (2)                     Christopher Columbus            Spanish Armada

John Cabot (2)                                    San Salvador                           House of Burgesses

Powhatan (3)                                       Amerigo Vespucci                  Mayflower Compact

John Rolfe (3)                                     St. Augustine                          Great Awakening

James Oglethorpe (3)                          Henry VIII                              King Philip’s War

Roger Williams (4)                              Puritans/Separatists                 Bacon’s Rebellion

Anne Hutchinson (4)                          Jamestown                              Salem Witchcraft Trials

Thomas Hooker (4)                             William Bradford                    Colonial Assemblies

William Penn (4)                                 Squanto                                   Dominion of New England

Thomas Hutchinson (4)                       Mass. Bay                               Glorious Revolution

George Whitefield (5)                         John Winthrop                        Two Treatises of Government

                                                            Scots-Irish                               Navigation Acts

John Smith                                          Jonathon Edwards                  writs of assistance

                                                            King Philip                              French and Indian War

                                                            Edmond Andros                     Treaty of Paris (1763)

 

Short Essay

 

1.         List the major factors in England's settlement of the New World.

2.         Compare the basic economic features of the New England colonies and the Middle colonies during the colonial era.

3.         Discuss the status of colonial women.

4.         Tell why slavery expanded in the South after the 1690s.

5.         Describe the English view of Indians and the results of that view.

6.         Describe and discuss the Enlightenment and its most important effect in the English colonies.

7.         Define "salutary neglect."  Then describe both its cause and effect in the English colonies.

 

 

 

                                                            REVIEW SHEET #2

 

 

People (Textbook)                             People & Places                     Identifications

 

Sam Adams (6)                                   George Grenville                     Sugar Act

Patrick Henry (6)                                Pontiac                                    Stamp Act

William Pitt (6)                                   Lord Frederick North             Boston Massacre

John Hancock (7)                                Thomas Gage                          Tea Act

Richard Henry Lee (7)                        Lexington & Concord             Coercive/Intolerable Acts

William Howe (7)                               George Washington                Declaration of Independence

Benedict Arnold (7)                            Tories                                      Articles of Confederation

Mary Wollstonecraft (8)                     Thomas Paine                          Northwest Ordinance of 1787

William Paterson (8)                           Trenton/Princeton                   Va. Plan vs. New Jersey Plan

Little Turtle (9)                                   Saratoga                                  The Federalist (Papers)

                                                            Benjamin Franklin                   Treaty of Tripoli

Henry Knox                                        Lord Charles Cornwallis         Bill of Rights

                                                            Elizabeth Freeman                  Whiskey Rebellion

                                                            Maryland                                 Battle of Fallen Timbers

                                                            New York City                       1800 Election             

 

 

Short Essay

 

1.         Identify and briefly describe the 3 areas of change involved in the new British colonial policy beginning in 1763 (from the British viewpoint).

2.         Explain the slogan "No Taxation without Representation."  Then describe the British response to it and then the American argument to their response.

3.         Describe the effects of the Revolutionary War on slavery in the new United States, and why.

4.         List the 2 chief weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.  Then identify the 2 major events which prominently displayed those weaknesses.

5.         Identify and describe in some detail what the religious references in the Declaration of Independence and Constitution mean and what they imply about the Founding Fathers’ intentions regarding church and state in the United States.

6.         Identify and thoroughly discuss the first two major political parties in American history in terms of their key leaders and philosophy.  Use the terms discussed in class.

7.         Briefly discuss the Alien and Sedition Acts (include Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions).

 

 

 

 

                                                            REVIEW SHEET #3

 

 

People (Textbook)                             People & Places                     Identifications

 

Robert Livingston (9)                         John Marshall                          Louisiana Purchase

Tecumseh (9)                                       Lewis & Clark                         Embargo Act

Oliver H. Perry (9)                              Aaron Burr                              Battle of New Orleans

Samuel F. B. Morse (10)                     James Madison                        Hartford Convention

Robert Fulton (10)                              Francis Scott Key                   Erie Canal

Lyman Beecher (12)                           James Monroe                         Adams-Onis Treaty

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (12)              Henry Clay                              Missouri Compromise

Dorothea Dix (12)                               John Q. Adams                       Monroe Doctrine

Horace Mann (12)                               Andrew Jackson                     American System

Henry David Thoreau (12)                  John C. Calhoun                     Tariff of Abominations

                                                            Daniel Webster                       Indian Removal Act

Samuel Slater                                      William Henry Harrison          “Bible Riots”

Black Hawk                                        Henry Steinway                      Mass Entertainment (forms)

James Fenimore Cooper                      Charles G. Finney                   Age of Social Reform (time)

                                                            Sylvester Graham                    2nd Great Awakening

 

 

Short Essay

 

1.         Define the Marshall Court and briefly discuss the 3 major contributions of that Court to our Constitutional understanding today.

2.         Define and discuss nullification, secession, and the Compact theory of the Constitution.

3.         Discuss the results of the War of 1812; include the most important result and why.

4.         Define the factory system and briefly outline the major factors that led to its development in the United States.

5.         Define popular literature of the early 19th century and outline the four basic factors in its development.

6.         Compare and contrast Romanticism with the Enlightenment.

7.         Discuss the facts and the significance of the Millerite movement in the 1830s and 1840s.

 

 

 

 

REVIEW SHEET #4

 

 

People (Textbook)                             People & Places                     Identifications

 

William Lloyd Garrison (13)               James K. Polk                         Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

John L. O’Sullivan (14)                      Sam Houston                          Underground Railroad

Stephen Austin (14)                            The Alamo                              Compromise of 1850

Davy Crockett (14)                             Oregon Territory                     Uncle Tom’s Cabin

David Wilmot (14)                              Eli Whitney                             Dred Scott Case

John C. Fremont (15)                          Harriet Tubman                       1860 Election

Roger B. Taney (15)                           Nat Turner                               1st Battle of Bull Run

John J. Crittenden (15)                       Zachary Taylor (as President) Monitor v. Merrimack

P.G.T. Beauregard (16)                       Harper’s Ferry                         Battle of Antietam (Creek)

Clara Barton (16)                                South Carolina (secession)      Emancipation Proclamation

                                                            Jefferson Davis                       Battle of Shiloh

Thomas J. Jackson                               Fort Sumter                             Battle of Gettysburg

David G. Farragut                               Robert E. Lee                          Battle of Vicksburg

Henry Wirz                                         Joseph E. Johnston                  “March to the Sea”

                                                            Wilmer McLean                      Appomattox Courthouse

 

 

Short Essay

 

1.         Define "manifest destiny."  Include related philosophical thoughts, the time frame, and the 3 areas (or regions) left to complete our alleged manifest destiny in the mid-1840s.

2.         Define and explain the expression "King Cotton."  Then tell when cotton was king and what effect this had on slavery in the United States.

3.         Identify and briefly explain the four arguments the South used to defend slavery.

4.         Compare and contrast the Free Soil and Abolitionist positions on slavery, including the major motivating principle for each position.

5.         Define "popular sovereignty" and discuss how well it worked in Kansas Territory.

6.         Discuss the general strategy of each side in the Civil War and how they hoped to win that war.

7.         Outline the key factors in the legacy of the Civil War.